Church of the Transfiguration

Despite the difficult political situation of ancient Russia, the faith of the people did not dissect, and on the contrary, more and more new churches appeared. In addition to consolation, the new temples also signified the development of art. At first glance it may seem that the temple is only architecture, but it will be a mistake, because this is a whole complex which includes: chants, visual arts and architecture. The peculiarity of the temple structure is that the facade is a reflection of a certain period, but the interior, decorative elements, is a kind of architectural language of the time, which tells us about the events that took place. For example, the abundance of crosses in the decoration of the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior is associated with the commemoration of the Novgorodians who died in 1372 during the defeat of Torzhok by the Prince of Tver Mikhail Alexandrovich. So we can make sure that in the temples there are no unnecessary details, because everything in the temple is part of the sacrament, the sacrament of the union of God and the Church. The Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Ilyin Street is the same architectural page in the chronicle of our history.

The first Novgorod chronicle contains a record of the creation of the temple, which indicates the date of stone construction - 1374. Almost the same record is given in the Facial Chronicle.

Then a stone church appeared on the site of the old wooden church on Ilyina Street, it personified the architectural style of Novgorod, marking, along with the earlier church of Fyodor Stratelates, the completion of the process of forming a new direction in local architecture. In addition to the usual paired overlap, the octagonal form and the three-blade finish were used here. The stone church of the Savior on Ilyina demonstrates another distinctive feature of the 14th century Novgorod architecture. - abundance of decorative elements in the interior decoration.

The record in the Third Novgorod Record for 1378 reports that at the same time the Church of the Savior on Ilyina was painted by Feofan Grek, one of the greatest icon painters who was invited for this purpose by the residents of Ilyina Street headed by the noble Novgorod boyar Vasily Danilovich, who belonged to the Mashkov family.

Of the preserved fragments of the mural can be identified mural with the Savior Almighty in the dome. In addition, the icon painter painted the drum with the figures of the forefathers and prophets Elijah and John the Forerunner. It is worth noting the paintings of the apse with a fragmentary rite of saints and the "Eucharist", part of the figure of the Virgin on one of the altar pillars, "Baptism", "Nativity", "Confession", "Preaching of Christ to the Apostles" and "Descent into Hell" on the vaults and walls . Good preservation distinguishes the frescoes of the Trinity chapel.

Theophanes the Greek significantly influenced the art of Novgorod, which can be seen from the murals of the Church of the Assumption of the Virgin on Volotovo Field and the Fyodor Stratelates "on the Brook".

After the fires that had comprehended the city, the victims of the frescoes were washed with alkali, this technology was used in many Russian churches. During the XVII-XVIII centuries. the frescoes of the Savior on Ilyina were partially lost, and then they were shut down, which was also no exception to the rule.

Already in the last century, more precisely in 1913, 1918, 1920-1921, 1936 and 1968. restoration work was carried out, which allowed to open the surviving temple murals. In the 1960s restorers from Moscow have determined that part of the murals is still hidden by whitewash.



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