Thunder tower – one of the most beautiful and most visited towers of the Smolensk fortress wall. It is located in the center of the historical part of Smolensk, near the Park Of memory of Heroes, parks "Blonie" and "Lopatinsky garden".
According to one version, the name of the" Thunder " tower was due to the legend, according to which it once thundered a strong thunderbolt. In addition, its name represents the power of the force, which will be repulsed by the enemies who encroached on the city. It is menacingly put forward for the line of the Smolensk fortress wall that allowed to conduct from it circular attack from all tiers. Therefore, her power was "like thunder".
The Tower was connected by underground passages both with the external moat, and later, and directly with the Governor's house. In 1706, the window next to the tower was protected by an earthen embankment. The breach from the side of the tower Donets (Ilyinsky, Governor), which led from the fortress to the Soldier's settlement, was formed between 1812 and 1817. In 1870 it was expanded at the expense of Ilyinsky window leaf. Named Ilyinsky due to the fact that it passed through the street of the same name, and the Governor - the location of the tower next to the Governor's house.
After the revolution before the great Patriotic war of 1941-45 years in the Thunder tower was a Museum of nature named after N. Mmm. Przewalski. In the period of 1941-43 the iron roof was destroyed and the Windows were broken.
After the war, the interior space was redone and converted into the Headquarters of the air defense (MVP), and then in the tower was the Museum"Smolensk - shield of Russia". In 2017, the Thunder tower of the Smolensk fortress wall was transferred to the use of the Russian military historical society, the Museum exposition was updated and now the Museum is called the "Museum of military history of The Russian military historical society". The exposition is devoted to the construction of the Smolensk fortress wall, the defense of Smolensk, the Smolensk war and the final entry of the city into The Russian state. You will be able to see the interior of the tower, walk along its narrow steep stairs, walk along the castle wall (this is the only place of the Fortress wall, officially reserved for tourist walks). The Museum exhibits an interactive model of the Smolensk fortress wall of almost 5M2, household items and weapons, drawings and plans of the fortress wall and its towers. With sound effects and multimedia technology, you can immerse yourself in history.
Next to the Thunder tower is a monument to the architect of the fortress wall - Fedor Savelevich Horse, a monument to the outstanding architect, who managed in just 6 years to erect an impregnable and majestic defensive structure, was opened in 1991.
The very identity of Fyodor Konya is shrouded in many mysteries related primarily to his origin. According to the official version Fedor Kon came from dorogobuzhsky district, but there are options that he was even Italian.
In different sources it is called the Theodore Horse, the Konon Fedorov, Kondrat Fedorov, the Horse Fedorov (and the son of the architect is written in the books of the Trinity Boldin monastery as"Martin Ivanov son of the Horse"). They even suggest that his foreign name was simply "altered" in the Russian way. Another proof that Theodore the Horse could be a foreigner, are the Chronicles of 1617, when the sovereign architect began construction of the now defunct Kremlin of the White city in Moscow: "in the summer of 7094, the Emperor and king Grand Duke Fedr Ivanovich of all Russia, the autocrat led to Moscow delati grad stone ...and narekos his name was Tsar grad, and the master was Russian people named Horse Fedorov."
Some chroniclers openly call Fyodor the Horse" tursky " man, that is, a native of Italian Turin. There are also suggestions that Fyodor Kon could study in Turin, because the architecture of the fortress wall is similar to the multi-faceted towers of Lugo castle in upper Italy (between Ravenna and Bologna).
Mystery to the personality of Fyodor Konya adds the fact that there is virtually no information about his activities after the construction of the Smolensk fortress wall and the circumstances of death.